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  • 雨楓軒原創文學網 - 純凈的綠色文學家園 !

    雨楓軒

    互聯網究竟教給你孩子什么

    時間:2019-09-24來源:網友提供 作者:周軼君 點擊:
    互聯網究竟教給你孩子什么
     
    早六點半,鬧鐘響。五分鐘后會再響一次。兒子今天卻遲遲不肯起床。
     
    我叫了兩次,他熟睡如定。才三歲呀,要不要多睡一會兒呢?有一種恐怖叫“開始上學”。一想到往后十幾年的時間已經被安排:幾點起床,上學,做功課,幾點上床。是,有星期六星期天,寒暑假。但基本上就像鬧鐘一樣被設置了程序,動彈不得。直到上班,才覺得雖然也是程式化,但多了些許靈活。孩子不起床,要給他請假嗎?學校老師的警訓回蕩在耳邊:那會影響他日后的學習態度……可是,誰沒有曾經想逃?
     
     
    我在印度拍攝《他鄉的童年》時,與英國印度裔教授蘇卡塔一起去到偏遠農村。他在當地還沒有通電之前,就計劃架設互聯網教室“云中學校”,F在,那里的孩子,從公立學校一回來就到教室上網,不亦樂乎。那是村子里唯一可以與外界連接的地方。蘇卡塔的目的并不僅僅是雪中送炭,他也在實踐一套自己的教學方法SOLE(self-organised learning environment)——自我組織學習環境。當我問其中一個來“云中學校”上網的女孩,為什么喜歡來這里?她的理由出乎意料。她說,因為不喜歡學校里的規律。什么規律?就是每天固定時間響鈴上課,響鈴下課,什么時候吃飯什么時候寫作業,這些規律對她來說,是一種束縛。而在互聯網教室,沒有上下課時間,自己找答案,做自己喜歡的,自己安排。當然有開門關門時間,老師會控制他們總體上網的時長。
     
    程式化的作息,有助自律的養成。哪個孩子長大之后,不需要自律,甚至達到瑞·達利奧《原則》中的境界呢?但凡事都要取平衡?贪鍖W習中的機械性,很可能在早年間打擊孩子們對學習這件事情的興奮度。實際上,目前世界上通常的分科目、工業化學習方式,來自于一戰前的普魯士王國(歐洲義務教育的開始),為了快速培訓工人與士兵而采取的,以迅速取得結果為導向的學習方式。
     
    印度一間富裕的國際學校,也采用了SOLE的教學方法,許多家長是來自美國、歐洲的國際家庭。說起來孩子學習態度的改變,可以看得見家長眼睛里的光芒。學校創立者說,傳統的教學方法,是一種自上而下,告訴孩子“聽我的,照我做”,權威式教學見效快,有標準答案可供檢驗。但互聯網教學,最根本的精神是讓孩子忘記了自己是在某種規范之中,他們自己找答案時忘記了時間與空間的刻度,自己變成學習的主人。
     
    在這間學校里,七歲的孩子就已經開始“電子公民”課——如何負責任地使用互聯網。其中我參加的一節是讓孩子們辯論“網上購物與實體店購物,哪個更有利于環境?”孩子們給出的答案五花八門,老師并不給予標準解答,會讓他們三人一組,自己去網上尋求答案。這個過程實際包含了團隊合作、關鍵詞搜索使用、比對結果得出結論等。當孩子們在網上搜索時,老師的拷問至關重要。孩子看到搜索結果照搬:“網上購物更環保。”“為什么?”“因為是真的。”“什么是真?為什么相信你搜到的第一個答案?是不是應該找一下其他答案來比較?” ——這恐怕很多成年網民還學習中。
     
    蘇卡塔教授強調,SOLE并不是簡單把孩子推入互聯網海洋,讓他們沉溺其中。SOLE跟一般網吧不一樣在于,這種互聯網教室沒有隔板,每個人都看得見其他人上網在看什么。其次,孩子們必須以小組為單位,一起用互聯網,而不是一個人關起門來。歸根結底,在公開透明中,讓孩子們變成“self-learner”,自愿自主學習者。而教師的角色,就是“問大問題”。提出一個比較大的,無法馬上回答的具體問題(比如,今天為什么下雨?),讓孩子自己去找答案。我們傳統上認為老師,必須是比學生更高明,而在這種學習方法中,老師的角色,最主要是激發孩子的學習主動。
     
     
    長期以來,我是一個害怕孩子觸及電子產品的家長。在餐廳看到孩子被喂手機就會皺眉頭,雖然我深知其中的無奈。但印度的互聯網教師告訴我,電子產品是這一代孩子生活的一部分,你不可能否認它,或假裝視而不見。這倒讓我覺得,有點像我們這一代姍姍來遲的性教育——上一輩先假裝沒看見,后來又不知道該怎么教。而比較開明的做法,應該是早教,透明地講,包括講清楚責任。
     
    我原先抵觸太早接觸互聯網,是因為網絡令大腦皮層興奮,但長期記憶更多是來自靜態閱讀(“寂靜是書中含義的一部分,寂靜是讀者思想的一部分”)。不過,誰也沒說互聯網教育就是不讓看書了,恰恰相反,印度老師提醒我,“互聯網思維”是教你利用一切可以獲得的資源去解答問題:網絡、書本、身邊的人。孩子應該在不同資源間切換。而我對互聯網的偏見,來自于網絡對大腦皮層的“淺層刺激”。但恰恰是這樣的刺激,不自覺令人興奮。我們都抱怨時間碎片化,不停被微信或新聞推送打斷,但恰恰是這種打斷帶來的“將要發生什么”的新鮮感,讓我們欲罷不能。但這也成為孩子們搜尋答案的動力——不斷有新的刺激與動力。“如果是自己搜索到的答案,這個經驗他們不會忘記。”SOLE的發明人強調。
     
    我自己也有過一次敗給網絡搜索的經驗。有一次跟孩子聊起四種不同的豹子:Leopards(豹)、cheetahs(獵豹)、jaguars(美洲豹)和pumas(美洲獅),如何能說清楚分別?女兒說:“你去手機上查查?”我的第一反應是,不,媽媽有本厚厚的英文字典,上面說不定還有圖片,他們經常把同類歸在一起教。取出蒙塵的厚厚字典,在孩兒們的驚嘆聲中,頗為自得地打開,一翻,竟然每個“豹”名只有自己孤立的解釋,圖片都沒有!轉去網絡,卻圖文并茂清清楚楚,原來天下因此題困惑的家長不止我一個。教導孩子使用字典的機會,看來要推遲一個冰河期了;ヂ摼W是橫向聯系,發散性思維的助手。
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