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  • 雨枫轩原创文学网 - 纯净的绿色文学家园 !

    雨枫轩

    如何面对触摸屏

    时间:2019-09-26来源:网友提供 作者:曹玲 点击:
    如何面对触摸屏

     
      方畅购买了他的第一部iPad之后,妻子注意到他们两岁的儿子很快迷上了这个新设备。他能在10分钟内掌握它的用法,比如如何解锁,如何使用主页按钮,如何打开应用程序。
     
      即便居住在高科技产业云集的美国加利福尼亚州,方畅也意识到“触屏时间”具有潜在的危害。“平板电脑就在那里,这是未来的浪潮,孩子很难不被影响。我们希望教会他如何健康、有意义地使用这些设备。”方畅说。他在网上寻找既有教育作用又值得一用的应用程序(App),发现有上千种App归属于“教育”类别,但是被动、毫无创造力。有些儿童App甚至欺骗用户泄露个人信息,一些还带有广告和暴力内容。
     
      每年都有数千种针对孩子的App上线,如今,开发者已经开发了数种针对1岁孩子的App,你在YouTube上能看到9个月大的婴儿在iPad上玩宝宝弹钢琴(Baby Piano)的游戏。
     
      在这个领域,商机似乎无所不在。2013国际消费电子展上一个叫作CTA Digital的公司推出了一款产品——iPotty婴儿马桶。iPotty有一个可拆卸的马桶、座椅和一个为男孩子设计的便池,前端还多了一个放置iPad的展台,支持垂直、水平两种摆放方式和3种不同角度的切换。iPotty的开发者称,这是为了帮助孩子们在娱乐游戏的同时学会如何上厕所,因为当他们被有趣的卡通或是游戏吸引时,他们并不排斥在马桶上多待一会儿。
     
      一些儿童智力发展专家对儿童过早接触新的互动技术表示担忧,认为这很危险,增加了儿童的“屏幕时间”,对儿童的发展有很多负面影响。同时,一些人却认为“App一代”具有巨大的潜力,甚至主张给每个孩子一部iPad,美国、日本等国家的一些幼儿园甚至引入了iPad绘画、写字课程,以帮助教学。
     
    什么是健康的使用方式
      与技术打交道的一代人被冠以各种名称,“数字移民”“数字土著”“千禧一代”等等。2001年,美国教育学家马克·普伦斯基提出“数字土著”的概念,该概念也被称为“数字原住民”,指的是20世纪80年代以后出生、成长在数字环境下、能自信而娴熟地使用电脑技术的群体。这群人的后代基本上还不到10岁,他们有了一个新的名称:触屏一代。
     
      对于触屏一代而言,他们在蹒跚学步、牙牙学语时就接触了智能手机和平板电脑,带有外置键盘和鼠标的台式电脑似乎已然成为古董,敲起字来噼里啪啦响的玩意儿是父辈使用的,对他们而言,只需滑动手指头即可解决所有问题。
     
      无处不在的智能手机、iPad和App,使得家长产生很多顾虑和疑问,比如,使用多长时间是合适的?有年龄区别吗?长时间使用这些设备有什么风险?
     
      美国儿科学会建议年龄未超过2岁的儿童不要接触任何电子设备;对于年龄较大的孩子,建议使用电子设备的时间为每天1~2个小时。此外,学会鼓励父母“在家建立‘无屏幕’的空间和时间,确保儿童的卧室里没有电视和电脑,并在吃饭时关闭电视”。
     
      事实上,事情不是打开或关闭开关那么简单。专家无法给出一个一刀切的方法,父母只能依靠自己的常识和经验行事,以自己的理解协调孩子和技术之间的关系。陈思亮的儿子丁丁第一次接触到iPad时大约3岁。一家三口去餐厅吃饭时,丁丁不停地拿筷子到处乱戳,扭来扭去要从餐椅上下来。爸爸从包里掏出iPad,下载了一个绘图游戏,打开后屏幕上出现画布和蜡笔。丁丁瞬间安静下来,陈思亮和妻子好好吃了一顿饭。这样的情况并不少见,当父母面对不听话的孩子而不知所措时,经常塞给他们一部iPad或者智能手机,让他们老实坐在餐桌边上,不要乱跑,不要总是打断大人谈话。
     
      从那时起,iPad经常出现在丁丁的生活里,陈思亮给他下载了一些教育App。他和妻子并不希望孩子总是把时间耗在电脑上,不过他们也看到丁丁和iPad有一段愉快的相处时光。最终,陈思亮制定了一个规则:在丁丁玩其他种类的游戏之前,必须要先花点时间在教育App上。这样做的结果是,父母和孩子在对待iPad这个问题上都没有过度纠结。
     
      除了陈思亮这种找到和谐相处模式的家长之外,还有大量束手无策的父母和“中毒至深”的孩子。陈思亮的朋友李齐家的孩子2岁半,见到家里的笔记本电脑、iPad和手机就嚷嚷着要玩一种消除泡泡就可以得分的游戏,或者听儿歌、看动画,如果不给就大喊大叫,哭闹不已。如果给他限制时间,拿走的时候依然要大哭一场。陈思亮的方法在李齐家完全无用武之地,家长只好把所有的电子设备都藏起来,严禁孩子接触。他们很反感某些幼儿园里使用iPad教学的方法:“在家里我们不让接触这些设备,在幼儿园里就管不着了,上瘾了怎么办?回家哭闹着要怎么办?”
     
      一些孩子祈求使用iPad时的模样着实令家长上火,一些家长担心孩子痴迷、上瘾,一些家长担心孩子会变成“僵尸”。所谓“僵尸效应”,指的是当上蹿下跳闹个不停的孩子坐到电视机前,立刻就变得安静老实,视周围一切如无物。比如英国之前报道了4岁的女孩玩iPad上瘾,长达一年时间每天玩3~4个小时,当iPad被拿走时她变得沮丧、伤心欲绝,不得不接受精神治疗。女孩的医生理查德·格雷厄姆说:“孩子几乎一出生就接触到网络。他们看自己的父母玩移动设备,他们也想玩。有时候我觉得产前培训课程应该包括如何合理使用互联网。”他建议:“不要把你的iPad放在孩子周围,孩子看到那么多漂亮的颜色,他们会忍不住去玩。”
     
    电子设备究竟会怎样改变孩子
      事实上,没有人能回答智能手机和平板电脑对儿童智力发展会有怎样的影响,没有人确切证实iPad会让学龄前孩童变得更聪明,或者教会他们英文,或者让他们的神经元回路变迟钝,因为这种装置问世才5年。
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