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  • 雨枫轩原创文学网 - 纯净的绿色文学家园 !

    雨枫轩

    激励有时会过敏

    时间:2019-10-04来源:网友提供 作者:罗尔夫·多贝里 点击:
    激励有时会过敏

     
       越南河内政府曾经颁布过一条法令:一个人每交出一只死老鼠,政府就给他发一份钱。政府这样做本来是想控制鼠灾,却导致人们养殖老鼠。
     
      1947年,当死海卷轴被发现时,考古学家们悬赏收集新发现的羊皮纸手稿。结果,为了增加手稿的数量,那些羊皮纸被撕碎了。同样的事也发生在19世纪的中国,当有人悬赏征购龙骨时,农民们会将挖出的完好的龙骨砸碎,前去领赏。
     
      一家企业的董事会向管理层承诺,一旦实现一个目标,就奖励一份特殊津贴。结果如何呢?经理们将更多的精力用于商定尽量多的目标,而不是思考如何让企业赚钱。
     
      这是激励“过敏”倾向的例子。它说明了一个事实:人们会对激励机制做出反应。这不奇怪,人们都会做对自己有益的事情。令人吃惊的是两个次要方面:第一,一旦有激励加入游戏或改变了激励,人们就会迅速而剧烈地改变自己的行为;第二,人们是对激励做出反应,而不是对激励背后的目的做出反应。
     
      好的激励机制会将目的和激励联系起来。举个例子:在古罗马,当一座桥竣工通行时,工程师必须站在桥拱下。这种机制会鞭策工程师将桥建得足够稳固。
     
      你想影响人们或组织的行为吗?那你可以通过价值观和愿景进行说教,但通过激励似乎总是更简单。这些激励不必是货币,从学分到诺贝尔奖再到未来生活的特殊待遇,什么都可以。
     
      在中世纪,为什么以贵族为主的人们会跃上战马,参加十字军东征?前往耶路撒冷的艰难骑行会持续至少6个月,还要穿越敌人设防的危险地带。所有这些,参与者都是知道的。那他们为什么还要冒险呢?就是因为激励机制。如果活着回来,他们可以保留战利品;如果死去,他们会作为殉难者前往彼岸,带着殉难者应得的好处。这是一件稳赢不输的事。
     
      按实际开销付钱给律师、建筑师、咨询师、会计师或驾校老师是愚蠢的。这些人受到激励,就会尽可能多花钱。因此,请你事先约定一个价格。专科医生总想尽可能全面地为你治疗和动手术,即使没那个必要。投资顾问乐于向你推荐金融产品,因为他们会得到一份销售佣金。古老的谚语怎么说来着:“千万别问理发师你是否需要理发。”
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