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  • 雨枫轩原创文学网 - 纯净的绿色文学家园 !

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    没有乾隆,就没有今天的辣椒横扫中国

    时间:2019-10-05来源:网友提供 作者:张明扬 点击:
    没有乾隆,就没有今天的辣椒横扫中国
     
    这二三十年,辣椒和川菜就像是开挂的诸葛亮一样,《出师表》还没来得及写,就轻易统一了中国人的味觉。按照前不久的一些数据,连爱吃甜的苏州和上海都成了吃辣的忠实簇拥,杭州的川菜餐厅据说超过了杭帮菜,吃辣竟然成为了广东人外卖的新宠。
     
     
    辣这一火起来,四川或者其他西南地区的人们就突然多了一些别样的历史感,热衷于论证当地人吃辣史的源远流长,或者通过天气湿热需要祛湿来证明自己吃辣是一个多么注定的“天选之子”,搞来搞去,就变成了一种辣椒神秘主义,他们自己信了,我们也都信了,“湖南人不怕辣,贵州人辣不怕,四川人怕不辣”,吃辣就这样上升到了民族性的高度。
     
    所幸,最近偶然看到了曹雨先生的《中国食辣史》和蓝勇先生的《中国川菜史》两本书,把辣椒和吃辣又拉回了人间。
     
     
    这两本书的共同观点就是,吃辣是个新现象,中国人吃辣也就才一两百年的事情,很多貌似历史悠久的经典川菜从发明到走红甚至也就才几十年的工夫。
     
    辣椒进入中国的时间并不算太晚,《中国食辣史》认为是16世纪下半叶,即明代中后期,最早有关的辣椒的文献记载是1591年,有趣的是,一直到康熙年,辣椒的“人设”都不是一种食物(调味品),而是一种奇花异草式的观赏植物。
     
    至于辣椒入华的进入路径,《中国食辣史》认为是由西班牙或葡萄牙人首先带入广东、浙江和福建沿海一带,总之都是不吃辣的地方。在中国最早对辣椒有记录的三份文献中,有两份出自杭州人之手,因此,川渝湘鄂一带的人看到杭州人不妨更怀有历史感的恭敬一点,更别说,是杭州人发明了杭椒不是。
     
    辣椒进入中国的第一个一百年,可以说是落寞的,飘忽于观赏花和药材之间,始终没有找到自己的准确定位。按照《中国食辣史》的说法,一直到康熙中叶,辣椒才开始进入中国人的饮食之中,但食用的地理范围非常小,“仅限于贵州东部和湘黔交界的山区”。
     
    四川人也不用愤愤不平,在那个时代,越早吃辣椒,可能代表着物质越匮乏。《中国食辣史》和《中国川菜史》都认为,贵州首先吃上辣椒,和当地缺盐有关系,辣椒可以替代盐!
     
     
    而这一物质匮乏逻辑,几乎贯穿着辣椒早年流传的历史。中国人开始广泛吃辣的时间,已经是到了清嘉庆(1796—1820)年。而原因,则与乾隆时高度相关——正是在乾隆时,中国人口从1亿左右猛增到了3亿,尽管玉米、红薯、土豆这一类的“美洲高产作物”有效支撑了人口爆炸,但按照曹雨在《中国食辣史》的说法,人口的迅速增长使得农民将越来越多的土地用于种植主食,用于种植蔬菜等副食的土地随之迅速减少,“辣椒作为一种用地少,对土地要求低,产量高的调味副食到越来越多的小农青睐,这构成了辣椒在南方山区扩散的主要原因”。
     
    看到没,西南一带一开始爱吃辣椒,和所谓的天气潮湿并没有太大关系,就是因为物质匮乏。
     
    不仅如此,如果我们还记得上世纪八九十年代的一些生活场景的话,应该会知道,辣椒酱和咸菜一样,对于一个无闲钱买菜的家庭而言,是多么弥足珍贵。我清楚的记得,二十多年前上大学时,同学里还时有那种在食堂里打一份饭和一个廉价蔬菜,甚至不买菜只打一碗免费汤,然后靠着辣椒酱吃完的景象,最厉害的是,如此简陋的一顿饭,只要有了辣椒,就有了光彩和味道。
     
    可以说,没有乾隆年代的人口爆炸,辣椒是不会这么快扩散于中国的,从这个角度而言,说乾隆是“中国辣椒之父”也不为过。
     
    欧洲人的地理大发现带来了美洲的玉米、红薯、土豆,这是食物支撑了乾隆时代的人口大爆炸,人口大爆炸导致了辣椒在中国的流行,然而,我们不要忘了,辣椒其实也是地理大发现的产物。因此,我们可以这样说,是来自美洲的玉米、红薯、土豆帮助了来自美洲的辣椒走上了中国人的餐桌,美洲的农作物兄弟真是一家亲啊。
     
    按照《中国食辣史》的说法,在20世纪初,辣椒在中国已经形成了以贵州为地理中心的“长江中上重辣地区”。
     
    但是,就算到了这个时候,即使在西南重辣地区,你仍然不能说吃辣已经成为了一种时尚,因为,正是辣椒身上所附带的“物质匮乏基因”,决定了辣椒此时仍是一种难上大雅之堂的“庶民美食”,更直白点说,就是乡下穷人吃的,就像各种咸菜一样,很难走上城市宴席,成为真正意义上的“流行之味”。
     
    曹雨的外祖母回忆称,民国时长沙饭馆内的菜肴多为不辣,即使有少数放辣椒的,也是作为点缀,旧时饭馆最突出的味道反而是“甜味和油腻”,“乡下人进城多了(长沙)才变得辣了”。
     
    成都也是如此,迟至民国初年,餐馆里主打的味道还是“鲜香”,在1930年代著名的餐馆“姑姑筵”中,最流行的菜品还是开水白菜、樟茶鸭和蝴蝶海参这类菜。
     
     
    蓝勇在《中国川菜史》也查阅了大量晚清的川菜菜谱,在两千五百多种菜品中,明确使用辣椒作为主要调料只有十几种,连1%都不到。我想,在当下中国任何一个号称不吃辣的地区,辣椒入菜的比例也远远大于1%吧。
     
    不过,蓝勇认为,如果一味按照菜谱的逻辑,我们可能低估了清末民国时期辣椒对川菜的影响,但即便如此,有两点是基本肯定的:高档宴席是不太使用辣椒的;即使考虑乡村,清末民初的整体食辣程度还是相对较弱的。
     
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