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  • 雨枫轩原创文学网 - 纯净的绿色文学家园 !

    雨枫轩

    境界与知识

    时间:2019-09-29来源:网友提供 作者:鲍鹏山 点击:
    境界与知识

     
      文化是一个能够激发我们感情的崇高东西,它和知识是不一样的。一个有文化的人,你会发现他的生命力是非常旺盛的。他不是冷冰冰的,而是富有激情、情怀,他会用充满了爱和诗意的眼光来看待这个世界。
     
      可今天,我们从小学到大学的教育,更多的是教知识、技术、专业,唯独缺少文化。我们培养了很多精致的利己主义者、很多高学历的野蛮人,他们是冷冰冰的。
     
      有句很有名的话:知识就是力量。但是我今天要对大家讲的是,尽管知识确实重要,但知识也有局限性。
     
      什么叫知识?知识是对这个世界事物的认知。既然世界是无限的,那么知识也是无限的,可悲的是,人生是有限的。庄子就说过:“吾生也有涯,而知也无涯。以有涯随无涯,殆已。”如果用有限的生命去追求无限世界所包含的无限知识,我们的人生就会废掉。
     
      当知识不成体系时,它是无用的,只是碎片。举个例子,曾有一家报社搞国学知识竞赛,其中有一道题目问:中国历史上哪一个时代的宦官是可以娶妻的?这是非常严肃的知识。如果你专门研究宦官,把他们的生存状况、心理状态以及他们在中国历史上的地位、影响、作用都搞明白,你将会成为一名了不起的专家。可是假如你的主要精力不在此,这样的知识碎片,对你一点用处也没有。
     
      可有不少人甘愿用琐碎的知识,把自己的人生切割成碎片。尼采写过一篇文章叫《我为什么这么聪明》。他的结论就一句话:“我之所以这么聪明,是因为我从来不在不必要的事情上浪费精力。”
     
      有一次我坐出租车,司机正在收听一档知识竞赛节目。节目中,主持人放了5个音乐片断,每个片断几秒钟,随后提问:“这5个音乐片断中,有两个片断属于同一首歌,你们谁知道?”一个小伙子抢答说他知道,并且回答正确。紧接着第二个问题是:“有两首歌出自同一张音乐专辑,你知道吗?”这时我紧张了,我怕小伙子知道。他不知道,说明他还是正常人,如果他知道,他这一辈子可能就废了。但没想到他真知道。这时,我让司机把收音机关掉,司机吓一跳,问为什么。我说:“它在误导我们生命的流向。”
     
      这就是无用的知识,生活中有太多这样无用的知识。当一个人把精力花在这些地方时,他可能获得了知识,并且能在饭桌上与人聊天,但他会变得特别琐碎。决定人境界高下的并不是对知识的掌握。
     
      《列子》里面有篇文章叫《两小儿辩日》。两个小孩争论,太阳在早晨离我们近,还是在中午离我们近。两个人都有根据,说早晨近是因为早晨的太阳看起来比中午的大;说中午近是因为感觉中午的太阳比早晨的热。他们要孔子给个标准答案。
     
      孔子没法判断。于是作者就借小孩的嘴讽刺孔子:“谁说你知识多?”作者大概是想,只要否定孔子的知识多,那就否定了孔子的价值。
     
      事实上,决定孔子境界的不是知识的总量,而是另外一种东西——对人和世界有更为清楚的认识。孔子早就说过:“吾有知乎哉?无知也。”苏格拉底也曾经说:“我比别人多知道的那一点,就是我知道自己是无知的。”他们说这些不是谦虚,不过是说出了真相。面对世界的无限,我们短暂生命里获得的知识可以忽略不计。所以,我们应该允许自己无知,也应该宽容别人的无知。
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